Country: Bohemia and Moravia
Denomination: 100 Kronen
Emission year: 1943
Terezín (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtɛrɛziːn]; German: Tsienstadt) is the name of a former military fortress and garrison town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.
Tsienstadt concentration camp (often referred to as Terezín) was a Nazi German ghetto during World War II. It was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city of Terezín (German name Tsienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic.
Kronen — money that is claimed to be part of the propaganda presented to the Red Cross committee. In fact, despite the claims that these were just papers without any real value and were never used, ex-residents of Tsienstadt describe how they each received 50 crowns every month free with which to buy things.
Terezín during World War II
During WWII, the Gestapo used Terezín, better known by the German name Tsienstadt, as a ghetto, concentrating Jews from Czechoslovakia, as well as many from Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and Denmark. More than 150,000 Jews were sent t, and although it was not an extermination camp about 33,000 died in the ghetto itself,mostly because of the appalling conditions arising out of extreme population density. About 88,000 inhabitants were deported to Auschwitz and other extermination camps. At the end of the war t were 17,247 survivors. Tsienstadt was the home of Hana Brady and her brother George Brady from 1942-1944.
The Small Fortress in Terezin was also used as a punishment prison for Allied POWs who persisted in escape attempts. POWs from Australia, New Zealand, England and Scotland were imprisoned and witnessed the horrendous inhuman mistreatment of the largely Jewish population. Keeping POWs in such a camp was against the Geneva Convention, and the camp was under the direct control of the Gestapo who refused to acknowledge the POWs' special status. They saw that elderly Jewish inmates were given food every second day and forced to do hard labour constructing a 1 km long tank trap, mainly using their hands. Prisoners who stopped jogging, with handfuls of dirt, were beaten unmercifully. Prisoners were forced to sit on the head and legs of a victim while the guard repeatedly struck the victim with a nailed post, reducing their buttocks to pulp. Jews were also whipped with strips of thin wire that tore their bodies apart. Prisoners were forced to collect the bloody parts and load them on a cart.
Terezin was the punishment prison for Walter Wise (Australia), Charles Croall (NZ), Roy Lomas (NZ), Ray Reid (NZ), Gerry Mills (NZ), Sid Davison (NZ), Tom McLeod (NZ), Alf Booker (NZ), Jock Bone (UK), Herb Cullen (Australia), Tama Tamaki (NZ), Wal Riley (Australia), Tom Mottram (NZ), Jim Ilott and Alexander McClelland (Australia). All survived but suffered chronic physical and mental health problems for most of their lives.
For many years the Australian and New Zealand governments denied that any of their servicemen had been sent to Terezin, but after several years of campaigns the Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke established a committee of investigation in 1987 which eventually ordered $10,000 compensation payments to the surviving veterans. Australian journalist Paul Rea produced the 1985 film W Death Wears a Smile which made sensational allegations about the supposed murder of dozens of Allied prisoners at Terezin. These claims have been refuted by one of the veterans, Alexander McClelland, in his book The Answer - Justice.
Part of the fortification (Small Fortress) served as the largest Gestapo prison in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, separated from the ghetto. Around 90,000 people went through it, and 2,600 of those died t
It was liberated on 9 May 1945 by the Soviet Army.
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