SEE PHOTO----- COMPLETE ORIGINAL newspaper, the NY American dated May 17, 1836. Front page and inside page news reports on the infamous FANNIN MASSACRE during the Goliad Campaign of the TEXAS REVOLUTION.The Goliad Campaign refers to a series of battles which occurred in 1836 as part of the Texas Revolution in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas which ultimately led to the Goliad massacre . Troops from the army of Mexico defeated Texian forces in several clashes, and eventually massacred many of their prisoners of war , spreading outrage and resentment among the population of the fledgling Republic of Texas , as well as terror. Background
By 1835, thousands of Americans , mostly from the southern states , had emigrated to Mexican Texas . As internal political changes caused Mexican government policy to become more repressive to them, many colonists living in Texas decided to rebel against Mexico to form their own independent country. These " Texians " then proceeded to seize key towns and forts , including the Alamo in San Antonio and the Presidio La Bahia in the town of Goliad .Texians
In Goliad, Colonel James Fannin commanded the Texian force of nearly 500 trained soldiers and militia . Fannin had chosen to keep his troops at Goliad mainly because it had a fort, from which he believed it would be easier to fight than out in the open. Fannin also believed that, by occupying Goliad, he could prevent Mexican commander Antonio López de Santa Anna from drawing supplies from the Gulf of Mexico . However, Fannin was called to assist Colonel William Travis at the Alamo. On February 26 , 1836 , he attempted to march to San Antonio but turned back at the San Antonio River because of the inability to travel with the artillery and arms. Meanwhile, Mexican forces under General José de Urrea were quickly reaching Goliad, and they defeated three Texian forces at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27 , the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2 , and the Battle of Refugio on March 12 .Battle of Refugio
Fannin sent Captain Amon Butler King on a mission to Refugio on March 11 , to remove several noncombatant families out of the path of Urrea's army. On March 13 , King was surrounded by elements of the Mexican army and sent out a plea for help to Fannin, who sent William Ward and the Georgia Battalion to reinforce him. Urrea, meanwhile, heard of their presence and marched a flying column of 300 Mexican troops to Refugio, hoping to overtake the Texans. On March 14 , the two sides clashed and fought until dark, when Captain King led his men in an independent escape attempt. They were overtaken shortly and surrendered for lack of munitions. Captain King and all but one man were executed in short order.The Georgia Battalion attempted to escape to Victoria , w they expected to link up with the balance of Fannin's command. After wandering lost on the coastal prairie for several days, the Georgia Battalion reached Victoria, only to find it in the possession of the Mexican army. Short on munitions and supplies, with no hope of rescue, the majority of Ward's men voted to surrender under good terms. Only then were they made aware that Colonel Fannin and his men had already surrendered following the Battle of Coleto. They were marched back to Goliad to face the same fate as the rest of Fannin's command. Fannin's retreat and the Battle of Coleto
Fannon was ordered by General Sam Houston on March 11, 1836, to abandon Goliad and retreat to the Guadalupe River Texas Guadalupe River near Victoria. However, he'd sent most of his carts and horses with Ward to Refugio and had no cavalry. He sent couriers to Ward, but all of them were intercepted by Urrea's cavalry. Fannion hoped to retreat to Victoria, but he hesitated for several days. Urrea, meanwhile, sent cavalry to surround and isolate Goliad. He linked up with several more units of Mexican infantry, bringing the total number of Mexican troops in the area to 1,500.Coleto Creek
On March 18 , Urrea's advance ...