Today I will be listing several rare and historic MANSHUKUO (Manchuria) artifacts. This next item is the first of two rare Showa 15 (1940) South Manchuria Railway bonds issued during the control of the SMR by NISSAN (Nihon Sangyo Kabushiki Kaisha). Bond measures 7 1/2 X 9 1/2 inches and is in good shape. GUARANTEED AUTHENTIC. Background of the SMR: The South Manchuria Railway (MINAMI MANSHU TETSUDO) was founded in 1906 and engaged from 1907 to 1945 in the management of railways and the economic development of Manchuria. From the beginning the company was dominated by the Japanese government and military leaders. The administration of the Kwantung Territory controlled the company's railway guards and police. The SMR's increasing control of Manchuria and encroachment into Chinese territory led to a conflict with China. In 1931 the Kwantung Army used a bombing incident engineered by some of its officers as a pretext to occupy almost all of Manchuria. After the creation of MANCHUKUO, the SMR took control of all the nationalized railways of Manchuria. In 1937, the Kwantung Army asked NISSAN to organize the Manchuria Heavy Industry Co to manage the region's heavy industries. All the SMR's heavy industries, technicians, and facilities were transferred to the new company under AIKAWA YOSHISUKE. The SMR's function narrowed to the transportation of military goods and personnel in Manchuria reaching a peak in 1942. With the Japanese surrender in 1945, the SMR was placed under the control of the Chinese CHANGCHUN RAILWAY, a joint Soviet-Chinese operation. A rare and historic artifact of the puppet state of MANCHUKUO and the SOUTH MANCHURIA RAILWAY. Be sure to add me to your favorites list and check out my other items for more interesting things from Japan. Buyer pays ACTUAL SHIPPING COSTS. If you buy more than one item I can combine purchases to save on shipping. NOTE: IF YOU HAVE NOT RECEIVED AN EMAIL FROM ME WITHIN 3 or 4 DAYS AFTER THE CLOSE OF THE AUCTION PLEASE CHECK YOUR SPAM FOLDER.