1786 Fine Engraving- Portrait of Edward "The Black Prince" - Prince of Aquitaine

A beautiful folio engraving which was an illustration to Harrison's Edition of Rapin's History of England published in London and dated January 2, 1786

The portrait is of "Edward Prince of Wales & Aquitaine Duke of Cornwal" . This is Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376) - see below - based upon his monument in Canterbury Cathedral.

Good condition - fine, bold impression - minor spots in top border and one ragged edge where removed from the publication - see scan. Page size 10 x 16.5 inches - plate size 8 x 11.5 inches

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Edward, the Black Prince From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "The Black Prince" redirects here. For other uses, see The Black Prince (disambiguation) . Edward of Woodstock Prince of Wales ; Prince of Aquitaine Edward, Prince of Wales as Knight of the order of the Garter , 1453, illustration from the Bruges Garter Book Spouse Joan, 4th Countess of Kent Issue
more... Edward of Angoulême
Richard II of England House House of Plantagenet Father Edward III of England Mother Philippa of Hainault Born 15 June 1330
Woodstock Palace , Oxfordshire Died 8 June 1376 (aged 45)
Palace of Westminster Burial Canterbury Cathedral , Kent

Edward of Woodstock KG (15 June 1330 - 8 June 1376), called

He was called "Edward of Woodstock" in his early life, after his birthplace, and since the 16th century has been popularly known as the Black Prince. He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter , of whose order he was one of the founders.

Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II , a minor , upon the death of Edward III.

Richard Barber comments that Edward "has attracted relatively little attention from serious historians, but figures largely in popular history." [1]

Contents [ hide ] 1 Life 2 Marriage and issue 3 Edward and chivalry 4 List of major campaigns and their significance 5 Illness 6 Death and burial 7 Titles, styles, honours and arms 7.1 Arms and heraldic badge 8 The name "Black Prince" 9 See also 10 Ancestry 11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

Life [ edit ] Edward, the Black Prince, is granted Aquitaine by his father King Edward III. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31

Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire . He was created Earl of Chester on 18 May 1333, Duke of Cornwall on 17 March 1337 (the first creation of an English duke ) and finally invested as Prince of Wales on 12 May 1343 when he was almost thirteen years old. [2] In England, Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337. He also served as High Sheriff of Cornwall from 1340-1341, 1343, 1358 and 1360-1374.

Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, "The Fair Maid of Kent." [3] Edward gained permission for the marriage from Pope Innocent VI and absolution for marriage to a blood-relative (as had Edward III when marrying Philippa of Hainault, his second cousin) and married Joan on 10 October 1361 at Windsor Castle . The marriage caused some controversy, mainly because of Joan's chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power.

When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (since 1974 in Oxfordshire ), or at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire .

He served as the king's representative in Aquitaine , where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most brilliant [ clarification needed ] of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings such as James IV of Majorca and Peter of Castile .

Peter of Castile, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother Henry of Trastámara , offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Prince's aid in recovering his throne. Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera (April 3), in which he soundly defeated the combined French and Castilian forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin . However Peter did not pay fully and refused to yield Biscay , alleging lack of consent of its states . Edward retreated to Guienne by July. [4]

The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died on 8 June 1376 (a week before his 46th birthday), after a long-lasting illness that was probably amoebic dysentery contracted ten years earlier while campaigning in Spain. [5]

Marriage and issue [ edit ] Signet ring of the Black Prince in the Louvre

Edward had illegitimate sons, all born before his marriage. [ citation needed ]

By Edith de Willesford (d. after 1385):

Sir Roger Clarendon (1345/60 - executed 1402); he married Margaret (d. 1382), a daughter of John Fleming, Baron de la Roche. [6]

By unknown mothers:

Edward (b. ca. 1349 - died young) Sir John Sounder [7] Sir Charles FitzEdward (b. ca. 1352-)

Edward married his cousin, Joan, Countess of Kent (1328-1385), on 10 October 1361. She was the daughter and heiress of Edmund of Woodstock , Earl of Kent, the younger son of King Edward I by his second wife Margaret of France . They had two sons from this marriage. Both sons were born in France , where the Prince and Princess of Wales had taken up duties as Prince and Princess of Aquitaine .

Edward of Angoulême (27 January 1365 - January 1372) Richard II of England (6 January 1367 - c. 14 February 1400) often referred to as Richard of Bordeaux for his place of birth.

From his marriage to Joan, he also became stepfather to her children, including Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent whose daughter, Joan Holland , would marry Edward's brother, Edmund of Langley . Edward's other stepson, John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter , would marry Edward's niece, Elizabeth of Lancaster , daughter of his brother, John of Gaunt .

Edward and chivalry [ edit ]

Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal of chivalry . [8] On one hand, after capturing John the Good , king of France, and Philip the Bold , his youngest son, at the Battle of Poitiers , he treated them with great respect, at one point giving John permission to return home, and reportedly praying with John at Canterbury Cathedral. Notably, he also allowed a day for preparations before the Battle of Poitiers so that the two sides could discuss the coming battle with one another, and so that the Cardinal Périgord could plead for peace. However, some argue "he may have been playing for time to complete preparation of his archers' positions." [9]

On the other hand, his chivalric tendencies were overridden by expediency on many occasions. The Black Prince's repeated use of the chevauchée strategy (burning and pillaging towns and farms) was not in keeping with contemporary notions of chivalry, but it was quite effective in accomplishing the goals of his campaigns and weakening the unity and economy of France. [8]

List of major campaigns and their significance [ edit ] The 1345 Flanders Campaign on the northern front, which was of little significance and ended after three weeks when one of Edward's allies, Jacob van Artevelde , a former brewer and eventual governor of Flanders, was murdered by his own citizens. The Crécy Campaign on the northern front, which crippled the French army for ten years, allowing the siege of Calais to occur with little conventional resistance before the plague set in. Even when France's army did recover, the forces they deployed were about a quarter of that deployed at Crécy (as shown at Poitiers). Normandy came virtually under English control, but a decision was made to focus on northern France, leaving Normandy under the control of England's vassal allies instead. The Siege of Calais , during which the inhabitants suffered greatly and were reduced to eating dogs and rats. [10] The siege gave the English personal and vassal control over northern France before the temporary peace due to the Black Death . The Calais counter-offensive, after which Calais remained in English hands. "Les Espagnols sur Mer" or the Battle of Winchelsea in the waters of the English Channel where the English fleet defeated the Castilian fleet. The Great Raid of 1355 in the Aquitaine-Languedoc region, which crippled southern France economically, and provoked resentment of the French throne among French peasantry. The raid also 'cushioned' the area for conquest, opened up alliances with neighbours in Aquitaine, the one with Charles II of Navarre being the most notable, and caused many regions to move towards autonomy from France, as France was not as united as England. The Aquitaine Conquests, which brought much firmer control in Aquitaine, much land for resources and many people to fight for Edward. The Poitiers Campaign in the Aquitaine-Loire region, which crippled the French army for the next 13 years, fomenting the anarchy and chaos which would cause the Treaty of Bretigney to be signed in 1360. Following this campaign, there was no French army leader, there were challenges towards Charles the Wise, and more aristocrats were killed at Crécy and Poitiers than by the Black Death. The Reims Campaign, following which peace was finally achieved with the Treaty of Bretigny. But, on the same terms, England was left with about a third of France rather than a little under half which they would have received through the Treaty of London. This is due to the failure to take Reims which led to the need for a safe passage out of France. As a result, a lesser treaty was agreed to and Edward III was obliged to drop his claims to the French throne. France was still forced to pay a huge ransom of around four times France's gross annual domestic product for John the Good . The ransom paid was, however, a little short of that demanded by the English, and John the Good was not returned to the French. Thus, this campaign yielded mixed results, but was mostly positive for Edward. One must also remember Edward III never actually dropped his claim to the throne, and that about half of France was controlled by the English anyway through many vassals. The Najera Campaign in the Castilian region, during which Peter of Castile (also known as Pedro the Cruel) was temporarily saved from a coup, thus confirming Castilian dedication to the Prince's cause. Later, however, Pedro was murdered. As a result of Pedro's murder, the money the prince put into the war effort became pointless, and Edward was effectively bankrupt. This forced heavy taxes to be levied in Aquitaine to relieve Edward's financial troubles, leading to a vicious cycle of resentment in Aquitaine and repression of this resentment by Edward. Charles the Wise, king of France, was able to take advantage of the resentment against Edward in Aquitaine. However, the prince temporarily became the Lord of Biscay. The Siege of Limoges in 1370 on the Aquitaine area, after which the Black Prince was obliged to leave his post for his sickness and financial issues, but also because of the cruelty of the siege, which saw the massacre of some 3,000 residents according to the chronicler Froissart . Without the Prince, the English war effort against Charles the Wise and Bertrand Du Guesclin was doomed. The Prince's brother John of Gaunt was not interested with the war in France, being more interested in the war of succession in Castile. New evidence suggests the account of English atrocities was inflated by Froissart. [11] But that claim is inconsistent with Frossiert's service under Philippa of Hainault , queen consort of Edward III . King Edward III and the prince sailed for France from Sandwich with 400 ships carrying 4,000 men at arms and 10,000 archers, but after six weeks of bad weather and being blown off course, they were driven back to England. Illness [ edit ] Original Black Prince Heraldic achievements on display in Canterbury Cathedral

Edward the Black Prince seemed to have good health until 1366. It was not until his campaign in Spain to restore Don Pedro the Cruel to the throne of Castille that he became ill. [12] On this expedition, his army suffered so badly from dysentery that it is said that one out of every five Englishmen would not return home. [12] [13] Edward the Black Prince contracted an illness on this expedition that would ail him until his death in 1376. It is widely believed that he contracted amoebic dysentery but some argue against the likelihood that he could sustain life with a ten-year battle with dysentery. [13] Other possible diagnoses include edema, nephritis, cirrhosis or a combination of these. [12] [13] His illness prevented him participating on the battlefield. However, In 1370, the Prince had to leave his sick bed and raise an army to defend Aquitaine against Charles V of France. [12] In 1371, Edward the Black Prince's health declined to the point where his physicians advised him to leave Bordeaux and return home to England. After much rest and dieting in England, the Prince saw improvement in his health. In 1372, he sailed on an expedition with King Edward III but failed to land on the French Coast due to contrary winds. [12] After the attempted expedition with King Edward III, the Prince's health declined drastically. He would often faint because of weakness. This run of poor health continued until his death in 1376, aged 45. [12]

Death and burial [ edit ] Tomb effigy Tomb

Edward died at Westminster Palace . He requested to be buried in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral rather than next to the shrine, and a chapel was prepared there as a chantry for him and his wife Joan, Countess of Kent. (This is now the French Protestant Chapel, and contains ceiling bosses of her face and of their coats of arms.) However, this was overruled after his death and he was buried on the south side of the shrine of Thomas Becket behind the quire . His tomb consists of a bronze effigy beneath a tester depicting the Holy Trinity , with his heraldic achievements hung over the tester. The achievements have now been replaced by replicas, though the originals can still be seen nearby. The tester was restored in 2006.

Such as thou art, sometime was I.

Such as I am, such shalt thou be.
I thought little on th'our of Death
So long as I enjoyed breath.
On earth I had great riches
Land, houses, great treasure, horses, money and gold.
But now a wretched captive am I,
Deep in the ground, lo here I lie.
My beauty great, is all quite gone,

My flesh is wasted to the bone.

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