When steel magnate Andrew Carnegie began donating part of his fortunes to new libraries across the country, a new brick plant was being erected in Corral Hollow Canyon, in San Joaquin County, California. Four miles west of the brick works were the Tesla coal mines, w owners John and James Treadwell had supplied the much needed fuel to Californians since 1896. Now they were to realize the economic value of clay abundantly adjacent to the steeply dipping coal beds. This package of coal and clay was later called the "Tesla Formation" of Eocene Age (50 million years old). The Treadwells found the fire clay, gray clay, and kaolin to be excellent for making brick, sewer-pipe, and refractory products. From 1902 to 1905, the Treadwells built 14 round kilns, four chimneys, seven long drying sheds, a grinding and pug mill, a boiler room, a compressed air plant, loading docks, and a three-story brick building for the extruding and pressing machinery. By May 1903, the plant and kilns were put into operation. Because the Tesla coal mines already had a railroad built to Stockton, transporting the clay to the plant only required a spur line to the loading docks and some gondolas. On August 18, 1903, the Carnegie Brick and Pottery Company was incorporated with a capital stock of $1,000,000, divided into 10,000 shares. The
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