Philip II Alexander the Great Dad OLYMPIC GAMES Ancient Greek Coin Horse i55353

Item: i55353
Authentic Ancient Coin of:

Greek King Philip II of Macedon 359-336 B.C.
Father of Alexander III the Great
Bronze 18mm (5.88 grams) Struck circa 356-336 B.C. in the Kingdom of Macedonia
Commemorating his Olympic Games Victory
Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia.
Youth on h orse prancing right, ΦIΛIΠΠΟΥ above.
* Numismatic Note: Authentic ancient Greek coin of King Philip II of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great . Fascinating coin referring to his Olympic victories.

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History and Meaning of the Coin

During the times of ancient Greeks, horse racing was one of the events various Greek city-states and kingdoms would have intense competition with each other, as it was of great prestige to participate. Before the time of Philip II, the kingdom of Macedonia was considered barbarian and not Greek. Philip II was the first king of Macedon that was accepted for participation in the event, which was a great honor all in itself. It was an even greater honor that Philip's horses would go on to win two horse-racing events. In 356 B.C., he won the single horse event and then in 348 B.C. chariot pulled by two horses event. As a way to proudly announce, or what

Philip II of Macedon , ( Greek : Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών -- φίλος = friend + ίππος = horse -- transliterated Philippos 382 - 336 BC, was an ancient Greek king ( basileus ) of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III .

Born in Pella , Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I . In his youth, (c. 368-365 BC) Philip was held as a hostage in Thebes , which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony . While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas , became eromenos of Pelopidas , and lived with Pammenes , who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes . In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III , allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV , who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He had however first to re-establish a situation which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus . Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites (359). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa , an exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia.

Philip had married Audata , great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania , Bardyllis . However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and the favour of the Epirotes .

He also used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. He agreed with the Athenians, who had been so far una...
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